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SYNONYMY

Accepted names are in boldface type. Their corresponding synonyms are in standard type and indented underneath the accepted name.

Symbols indicate the source of the name or synonym, as follows:
# Flora of North America North of Mexico (Flora of North America 1993+)
^ Flora of the Pacific Northwest (Hitchcock & Cronquist 1973)
+ PLANTS Database (USDA, NRCS 2006)
5 Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest (Hitchcock et al. 1955–1969)
   indicates names that differ from Hitchcock & Cronquist (1973)

This list is not intended to be a complete synonymy: it includes only those species with potentially confusing synonyms, and it lists only those synonyms found in common references. Abbreviations of authorities have been standardized for consistency with the Tropicos database (Missouri Botanical Garden 2010) and the International Plant Names Index (2010).

Abronia umbellata Lam. var. acutalata (Standl.) C.L. Hitchc. ^ #
Abronia umbellata Lam. ssp. breviflora (Standl.) Munz + (not a synonym, but misapplied to Washington plants.)

Agoseris elata (Nutt.) Greene ^+
Agoseris × elata (Nutt.) Greene # (hybrid originally published as a species)

Agrostis mertensii Trin. +#
Agrostis borealis Hartm. ^

Aliciella leptomeria (A. Gray) J.M. Porter +
Gilia leptomeria A. Gray var. leptomeria ^

Allium constrictum (Ownbey & Mingrone) P.M. Peterson, Annable & Rieseberg +#
Allium douglasii Hook. var. constrictum Ownbey & Mingrone ^

Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel +
Ammannia coccinea Rottb. ^
Ammannia coccinea Rottb. ssp. robusta (Heer & Regel) Koehne

Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritz. #
Anemone nuttalliana DC. ^
Anemone patens L. 5
Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. ssp. multifida (Pritz.) Zämelis +

Artemisia campestris L. var. wormskioldii (Besser) Cronquist ^
Artemisia borealis Pall. var. wormskioldii Besser
Artemisia campestris L. ssp. borealis (Pall.) H.M. Hall & Clem. var. borealis(Pall.) M. Peck +
Artemisia campestris L. ssp. borealis (Pall.) H.M. Hall & Clem. var. wormskioldii (Besser) Cronquist ^

Asclepias cryptoceras S. Watson
Asclepias cryptoceras S. Watson ssp. davisii (Woodson) Woodson +
Asclepias davisii Woodson

Astragalus arrectus A. Gray +^
Astragalus palousensis Piper 5

Astragalus australis (L.) Lam. var. cottonii (M.E. Jones) S.L. Welsch
Astragalus australis (L.) Lam. var. olympicus Isely
Astragalus cottonii M.E. Jones +^

Astraglus multiflorus (Pursh) A. Gray
Astragalus tenellus Pursh ^+

Carex atrosquama Mack. +#
Carex atrata L. var. atrosquama (Mack.) Cronquist ^

Carex gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drejer +#
Carex dioica L. ^

Carex heteroneura W. Boott var. epapillosa (Mack.) F.J. Herm.
Carex atrata L. var. erecta W. Boott ^
Carex epapillosa Mack. #

Carex magellanica Lam. ssp. irrigua (Wahlenb.) Hiitonen #
Carex magellanica Lam. ssp. irrigua (Wahlenb.) Hultén +
Carex paupercula Michx. ^

Carex media R. Br. ex Richardson #
Carex norvegica Retz. ^
Carex norvegica Retz. ssp. inferalpina (Wahlenb.) Hultén +

Chrysolepis chrysophylla (Douglas ex Hook.) Hjelmq. var. chrysophylla +#
Castanopsis chrysophylla (Douglas ex Hook.) A. DC. ^

Chylismia scapoidea (Torr. & A. Gray) Raim. ssp. scapoidea
Camissonia scapoidea (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven +
Oenothera scapoidea Nutt. ssp. brachycarpa P.H. Raven ^
Oenothera scapoidea Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray var. seorsa (A. Nelson) Munz 5

Cistanthe rosea (S. Watson) Hershkovitz +#
Calyptridium roseum S. Watson ^

Claytonia multiscapa Rydb. ssp. pacifica (McNeill) John M. Miller & K.L. Chambers
Claytonia lanceolata Pursh var. multiscapa (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. ^
Claytonia lanceolata Pall. ex Pursh var. pacifica McNeill +

Cochlearia groenlandica L. +
Cochlearia officinalis L. ^

Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartman #
Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R.M. Bateman, A.M. Pridgeon & M.W. Chase +
Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br. var. bracteata (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray ^

Comastoma tenellum (Rottb.) Toyok.
Gentianella tenella (Rottb.) Börner ssp. tenella +
Comastoma tenellum (Rottb.) Toyok.
Gentiana tenella Rottb. ^

Corydalis aquae-gelidae M. Peck & W.C. Wilson ^
Corydalis aqua-gelidae M. Peck & W.C. Wilson ex M. Peck #
Corydalis caseana A. Gray ssp. aquae-gelidae (M. Peck & W.C. Wilson) Zetterlund & Lidén +

Cryptantha spiculifera (Piper) Payson +
Cryptantha interrupta (Greene) Payson ^ (misapplied)

Cusickiella douglasii (A. Gray) Rollins +
Draba douglasii A. Gray ^

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. +#
Cypripedium calceolus L. var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fernald ^

Damasonium californicum Torr. ex Benth. +#
Machaerocarpus californicus (Torr.) Small ^

Delphinium leucophaeum Greene ^
Delphinium nuttallii A. Gray ssp. ochroleucum (Nutt.) M.J. Warnock +#

Draba cana Rydb.
Draba breweri S. Watson var. cana (Rydb.) Rollins +
Draba lanceolata Royle ^ (misapplied)

Draba juvenilis Kom. +#
Draba kananaskis G.A. Mulligan
Draba longipes Raup

Eleocharis atropupurea (Retz.) J. Presl & C. Presl #+
Eleocharis atropupurea (Retz.) Kunth ^ (invalid authority)

Encalypta brevicollis (Bruch & Schimp.) Ångström #
Encalyptabrevicolla(Bruch & Schimp.) Ångström var. crumiana (D.G. Horton) H.A. Crum & L.E. Anderson +

Eremothera minor (A. Nelson) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
Camissonia minor (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven +
Oenothera minor (A. Nelson) Munz ^
Oenothera minor (A. Nelson) Munz var. cusickii Munz 5

Eremothera pygmaea (Douglas) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
Camissonia pygmaea (Douglas ex Lehm.) P.H. Raven +
Oenothera boothii Douglas ex Lehm. var. pygmaea (Douglas) Torr. & A. Gray 5
Oenothera pygmaea Douglas ^

Erigeron elatus (Hook.) Greene +
Erigeron acris L. var. elatus (Hook.) Cronquist ^
Trimorpha elata (Hook.) G.L. Nesom

Eriogonum maculatum A. Heller +#^
Eriogonum angulosum Benth.5 (misapplied)

Eurybia merita (A. Nelson) G.L. Nesom +#
Aster sibiricus L. var. meritus (A. Nelson) Raup ^

Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E.E. Lamont var. bruneri (A. Gray) E.E. Lamont #
Eupatoriadelphus maculatus (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. var. bruneri (A. Gray) R.M. King & H. Rob. +
Eupatorium maculatum L. var. bruneri (A. Gray) Breitung ^

Heterotheca oregona (Nutt.) Shinners +#
Chrysopsis oregona (Nutt.) A. Gray ^

Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners +#
Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. ^

Lasthenia maritima (A. Gray) M.C. Vasey +#
Baeria maritima (A. Gray) A. Gray ^

Lathyrus vestitus Nutt. ssp. ochropetalus (Piper) C.L. Hitchc. ^
Lathyrus vestitus Nutt. ssp. bolanderi (S. Watson) C.L. Hitchc. +

Leptosiphon bolanderi (A. Gray) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson +
Linanthus bakeri H. Mason ^
Linanthus bolanderi (A. Gray) Greene

Lipocarpha aristulata (Coville) G.C. Tucker +#
Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Britton ^ (in part, invalid authority)
Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax var. aristulata Coville

Lomatium sandbergii (J.M. Coult. & Rose) J.M. Coult. & Rose +
Lomatium sandbergii J.M. Coult. & Rose ^
Peucedanum sandbergii J.M. Coult. & Rose

Lupinus oreganus A. Heller var. kincaidii C.P. Sm. +
Lupinus sulphureus Douglas ex Hook. ssp. kincaidii (C.P. Sm.) L. Phillips
Lupinus sulphureus Douglas ex Hook. var. kincaidii (C.P. Sm.) C.L. Hitchc. ^

Lupinus sabinianus Douglas ex Lindl. +
Lupinus sabinii Douglas ^
Lupinus sabinii Douglas ex Hook. 5
Lupinus sericeus Pursh ssp. sabinii (Douglas ex Hook.) L. Phillips

Luzula arcuata (Wahlenb.) Sw. ssp. unalaschkensis (Buchenau) Hultén #
Luzula arcuata (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb. ^
Luzula arcuata (Wahlenb.) Sw. ssp. unalaschcensis (Buchenau) Hultén +

Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub +#
Lycopodium inundatum L. ^

Lycopodium dendroideum Michx. +#
Lycopodium obscurum L. ^ (misapplied)
Lycopodium obscurum L. var. dendroideum (Michx.) D.C. Eaton

Micromonolepis pusilla (Torrey ex S. Watson) Ulbr. #
Monolepis pusilla Torr. ex S. Watson ^+

Microseris borealis (Bong.) Sch. Bip. +#
Apargidium boreale (Bong.) Torr. & A. Gray ^

Minuartia nuttallii (Pax) Briq. var. fragilis (Maguire & A.H. Holmgren) Rabeler & R.L. Hartm. #
Arenaria nuttallii Pax var. fragilis (Maguire & A.H. Holmgren) C.L. Hitchc. ^
Minuartia nuttallii (Pax) Briq. ssp. fragilis (Maguire & A.H. Holmgren) McNeill +

Myosurus clavicaulis M. Peck
Myosurus minimus L. ssp. apus (Greene) G.R. Campb.
Myosurus minimus L. var. apus Greene

Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D.A. Sutton +
Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Cours. var. texana (Scheele) Pennell ^

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. ssp. cespitosa +
Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. var. caespitosa ^

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. ssp. marginata (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) Munz +
Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. var. marginata (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) Munz ^

Ophioglossum pusillum Raf. +#
Ophioglossum vulgatum L. ^ (misapplied)

Oxytropis borealis DC. var. viscida (Nutt.) S.L. Welsh +
Oxytropis viscida Nutt. ^

Oxytropis campestris (L.) DC. var. columbiana (H. St. John.) Barneby ^+
Oxytropis columbiana H. St. John

Oxytropis campestris (L.) DC. var. gracilis (A. Nelson) Barneby ^
Oxytropis monticola A. Gray +

Petrophytum caespitosum (Nutt.) Rydb. ssp. caespitosum ^+
Petrophyton caespitosum (Nutt.) Rydb.

Petrophytum cinerascens (Piper) Rydb. ^+
Petrophyton cinerascens (Piper) Rydb.

Physaria douglasii (S. Watson) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz ssp. tuplashensis (Rollins, K.A. Beck & Caplow) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz
Lesquerella tuplashensis Rollins, K.A. Beck & Caplow

Pityopus californicus (Eastw.) H.F. Copel. #
Monotropa californica Eastw.
Pityopus californica (Eastw.) H.F. Copel. ^+
Pityopus oregonus Small

Platanthera chorisiana (Cham.) Rchb. f. +#
Habenaria chorisiana Cham. ^

Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindl. ssp. obtusata +#
Habenaria obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Richardson ^

Poa nervosa (Hook.) Vasey +#
Poa nervosa (Hook.) Vasey var. nervosa ^

Poa unilateralis Scribn. ex Vasey ssp. pachypholis (Piper) D.D. Keck ex Soreng +#
Poa pachypholis Piper ^

Polygonum austiniae Greene ^#
Polygonum douglasii Greene ssp. austiniae (Greene) A.E. Murray +

Potentilla breweri S.Watson ^
Potentilla drummondii Lehm. ssp. breweri (S. Watson) Ertter +

Potentilla glaucophylla Lehm. var. perdissecta (Rydb.) Soják
Potentilla diversifolia Lehm. var. perdissecta (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. ^+

Pyrrocoma hirta (A. Gray) Greene var. sonchifolia (Greene) Kartesz & Gandhi +#
Haplopappus hirtus A. Gray var. sonchifolius (Greene) M. Peck ^

Pyrrocoma liatriformis Greene +#
Haplopappus liatriformis (Greene) H. St. John ^

Ranunculus cooleyae Vasey & Rose ^#
Kumlienia cooleyae (Vasey & Rose) Greene +

Ranunculus triternatus A. Gray +#
Ranunculus glaberrimus Hook. var. reconditus (A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.) L.D. Benson
Ranunculus reconditus A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. ^

Ribes oxyacanthoides L. ssp. irriguum (Douglas) Q.P. Sinnott +
Ribes irriguum Douglas ^
Ribes oxyacanthoides L. var. irriguum (Douglas) Jancz. #

Rorippa columbiae (S. Watson) Howell +
Rorippa calycina (Engelm. ex Hayden) Rydb. var. columbiae (S. Watson) Rollins ^

Rubus arcticus L. ssp. acaulis (Michx.) Focke +#
Rubus acaulis Michx. ^

Salix glauca L. var. villosa Andersson +
Salix glauca L. ^
Salix villosa D. Don ex Hook.

Salix vestita Pursh +
Salix vestita Pursh var. erecta Andersson ^

Sandbergia perplexa (L. F. Henderson) Al-Shehbaz #
Halimolobos perplexus (L.F. Hend.) Rollins var. perplexus
Halimolobos perplexa (L.F. Hend.) Rollins var. perplexa ^+

Saxifraga hyperborea R. Br. #
Saxifraga debilis Engelm. ex A. Gray ^
Saxifraga rivularis L. (misapplied) +

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium +#
Andropogon scoparius Michx. ^

Schoenoplectus saximontanus (Fernald) J. Raynal +#
Scirpus saximontanus Fernald

Sclerolinon digynum (A. Gray) C.M. Rogers +
Linum digynum A. Gray ^

Sericocarpus oregonensis Nutt. ssp. oregonensis +#
Aster oregonensis (Nutt.) Cronquist ^

Sericocarpus rigidus Lindl. +#
Aster curtus Cronquist ^

Sidalcea virgata Howell ^
Sidalcea malviflora(DC.) A. Gray ex Benth. ssp. virgata (Howell) C.L. Hitchc. +

Spiranthes porrifolia Lindl. +#
Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham. var. porrifolia (Lindl.) Ames & Correll ^

Symphyotrichum boreale(Torr. & A. Gray) Á. Löve & D. Löve +#
Aster borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov.
Aster junciformis Rydb. ^

Symphyotrichum hallii (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom +#
Aster hallii A. Gray
Aster chilensis Nees ssp. hallii (A. Gray) Cronquist ^

Symphyotrichum jessicae (Piper) G.L. Nesom +#
Aster jessicae Piper ^

Tauschia tenuissima (Geyer ex Hook.) Mathias & Constance +
Lomatium orogenioides (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias ^

Thelypodium sagittatum (Nutt.) Endl. ssp. sagittatum +
Thelypodium sagittatum (Nutt.) Endl. ^ (in part

Trillium parviflorum V.G. Soukup +#
Trillium chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell ^# (misapplied)


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