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Washington Natural Heritage Program
Proposed List of Rare Lichens
January 2014


The Washington Natural Heritage Program is grateful to the Washington Rare Lichens Committee of Northwest Lichenologists for evaluating NHP’s review list of rare lichen species; they have proposed the following statuses and ranks.  Their proposals are currently under review by DNR.

In 1997, the Washington Natural Heritage Program published a ‘working list of rare non-vascular plants,’ which included lichens.  The lichens list had been developed for the Natural Heritage Program primarily by members of the Northwest Lichen Guild.  Species were assigned to one of two categories (Priority 1 and Priority 2) based on the need for additional information and for conservation action. 

Although the Natural Heritage Program received some information over the intervening years on the lichens on these working lists, the Program did not have the expertise or the capacity to undertake the necessary review to assign a statewide conservation status (Endangered, Threatened or Sensitive) to each species.  In 2009, all lichens on the working list were added to the NHP’s Review Group 1 list, indicating more information was needed in order to determine their statewide status. 

In 2011, Northwest Lichenologists (a non-profit) obtained funding from the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management to conduct a comprehensive review and to make recommendations to the Natural Heritage Program regarding the status of rare lichens in Washington.  The results of their review are presented below.  The committee proposed that 28 taxa be considered Endangered, 13 Threatened, 11 Sensitive, and 1 Possibly Extirpated from Washington.  In addition, they identified 23 taxa that should be monitored and 7 taxa with taxonomic questions.  The committee’s recommendations are currently under review by DNR.


Table 1. Proposed Endangered lichens in Washington state.

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Acroscyphus sphaerophoroides Leveille   GNR S1
Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Massal.   G5 S1
Arctoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale Parmelia incurva, Xanthoparmelia incurva G3G5 S1
Bryoria pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw.   G3 S1
Bryoria tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw.  Alectoria tenuis GNR S1
Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Korber   G3G5 S1
Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata Stirton Cladina ciliata GNRTNR S1
Cladonia ciliata var. tenuis (Flörke) Ahti  Cladina ciliata var. tenuis GNRTNR S1
Cladonia novochlorophaea  (Sipman) Brodo & Ahti Cladonia merochlorophaea var. novochlorophaea GUTNR S1
Cladonia poroscypha Hammer 1993   GNR S1
Dactylina arctica (Richardson) Nyl.   G4G5 S1
Dactylina ramulosa (Hook.) Tuck.   G4G5 S1
Dermatocarpon moulinsii (Mont.) Zahlbr.   GNR S1
Fuscopannaria laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. Pannaria laceratula G5 S1
Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt   G4 S1
Hypotrachyna revoluta (Flvrke) Hale   G3G4 S1
Leioderma sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg.   G4 S1
Leptogium burnetiae C. W. Dodge Leptogium burnetiae var. hirsutum G3G5 S1
Leptogium cyanescens (Rabenh.) Kvrber   G5 S1
Pannaria rubiginella P. M. Jørg. & Sipman Pannaria malmei (misidentifications) GNR S1
Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl.   GNR S1
Pseudocyphellaria perpetua McCune & Miadlikowska   G4 S1
Solorina saccata (L.) Ach.   G3G5 S1
Umbilicaria lambii Imshaug   G2G4 S1
Umbilicaria lyngei Schol. Agyrophora lyngei G3 S1
Umbilicaria phaea var. coccinea Llano   G5?T3Q S1
Umbilicaria scholanderi (Llano) Krog Agyrophora scholanderi G1 S1
Vulpicida tilesii (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & M.J. Lai Cetraria tilesii G4G5 S1
 

Table 2. Proposed Threatened lichens in Washington state.

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl.   G5 S3
Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin Sphaerophorus melanocarpus GNR S1
Cladonia portentosa ssp. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti Cladina portentosa ssp. pacifica GNRTNR S2
Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum Vain.   G3G5 S2
Erioderma sorediatum D.J. Galloway & P.M. Jxrg.   G4 S2
Kaernefeltia californica (Tuck.) Thell & Goward Cetraria californica G3 S2
Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.   G4 S2
Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.   G4G5 S2
Stereocaulon myriocarpum Th. Fr.   G4 S2
Texosporium sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Nadv.   G3 S1
Umbilicaria rigida (Du Rietz) Frey Umbilicaria coriacea, Agyrophora rigida, Gyrophora anthracina G4? S2
Usnea lambii R. Br. confused with Usnea sphacelata G4G5 S2
Usnea quasirigida Lendemer & Tavares Usnea rigida GNR S2
 

Table 3. Proposed Sensitive lichens in Washington state.

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Chaenotheca subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr.   G3G4 S3
Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC.   G5? S3
Hypogymnia heterophylla Pike   G3 S3
Nephroma occultum Wetm.   G4 S3
Niebla cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler   G3G4 S2
Peltigera hydrothyria Miadl. & Lutzoni   G4 S3
Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis Imshaug   G3G4 S4
Thelomma mammosum (Hepp) A. Massal.   G3G4 S2
Tholurna dissimilis (Norman) Norman   G3G5 S2
Usnea hesperina Mot. Usnea schadenbergiana, Usnea subgracilis G4G5 S3
Usnea longissima Ach.   G4 S4
 

Table 4. Lichens that we recommend be monitored for rarity in Washington. (Review List 1)

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Bryocaulon divergens (Ach.) Karnefelt   G4G5 SU
Buellia oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck.   G3? SU
Buellia tesserata Körber Buellia fimbriata GNR SU
Circinaria hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & Culb. Aspicilia hispida, Agrestia hispida G3 SNR
Coccotrema pocillarium (Cummings) Brodo   G2G4 S1
Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale   G5? SU
Hypogymnia oceanica Goward   G4? S4
Leptogium rivale Tuck.   G3G5 S3
Leptogium teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold   G4G5Q S1
Lobaria linita (Ach.) Rabenh.   G4G5 S4
Ochrolechia turneri (Sm.) Hasselrot   GNR SU
Pannaria rubiginosa (Thunb.) Delise   G4G5 SU
Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vainio) Bitter   G4 S1
Pertusaria flavocorallina Coppins & Muhr   GNR SU
Phaeographis smithii (Leighton) de Lesd.   GNR SU
Pilophorus nigricaulis Sato   G3G4 S3
Rhizocarpon cookeanum H. Magn.   GNR S1
Rinodina aspersa (Borrer) Laundon   GNR S1
Schaereria dolodes (Nyl.) Schmull & T. Sprib. Lecidea dolodes G4 S1
Trapeliopsis glaucopholis (Nyl. ex Hasse) Printzen & McCune Trapeliopsis californica G3G4 S1
Trapeliopsis steppica McCune & Camacho   G2G4 S1
Umbilicaria hirsuta (Sw. ex Westr.) Hoffm.   G2G4 SU
Vestergrenopsis isidiata (Degel.) E. Dahl   G4? S1
 

Table 5. Species with taxonomic questions (Review List 2).

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Alectoria lata (Taylor) Lindsay   G3G4 SNR
Bryoria pikei Brodo & D. Hawksw.   G2 SNR
Dendriscocaulon intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen   GUQ SNR
Lobaria silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet) Goward & Goffinet Nephroma silvae-veteris GNR SNR
Pyrrhospora subcinnabarina (Tonsberg) Hafellner   GNR SNR
Umbilicaria arctica (Ach.) Nyl. Gyrophora arctica G3 SNR
Umbilicaria nylanderiana (Zahlbr.) H. Magn.   GNR S1
 

Table 6. Species that are possibly extirpated from Washington.

Scientific Name Authority Synonym(s) Global Rank State Rank
Sulcaria badia Brodo & D. Hawksw.   G3 SH


Description of Rank Codes
Global Rank (GRank)
Global Rank characterizes the relative rarity or endangerment of the element world-wide.
G1 = Critically Imperiled - At very high risk of extinction or elimination due to very restricted range, very few populations or occurrences, very steep declines, very severe threats, or  other factors.
G2 = Imperiled - At high risk of extinction or elimination due to restricted range, few populations or occurrences, steep declines, severe threats, or other factors.
G3 = Vulnerable - At moderate risk of extinction or elimination  due to a fairly restricted range, relatively few populations  or occurrences, recent and widespread declines, threats, or other factors.
G4 = Apparently Secure - At fairly low risk of extinction  or elimination due to an extensive range and/or many populations or occurrences, but with possible cause for some concern as a result of local recent declines, threats, or other factors.
G5 = Secure  At very low risk or extinction or elimination due to a very extensive range, abundant populations or occurrences, and little to no concern from declines or threats.
GH = Possibly Extinct - Known from only historical occurrences but still some hope of rediscovery.
GU = Unrankable - Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting information about status or trends.
GX = Presumed Extinct - Not located despite intensive searches and virtually no likelihood of rediscovery.
GNR = Unranked - Global rank not yet assessed.
G#G# = Range Rank - A numeric range rank (e.g., G2G3, G1G3) is used to indicate uncertainty about the exact status of a taxon or ecosystem type.
Rank Qualifiers
? = Inexact Numeric Rank - Denotes inexact numeric rank.
Q = Questionable taxonomy that may reduce conservation priority   Distinctiveness of this entity as a taxon at the current level is questionable; resolution of this uncertainty may result in change from a species to a subspecies or hybrid, or inclusion of this taxon or type in another taxon or type, with the resulting taxon having a lower-priority (numerically higher) conservation status rank.
Infraspecific Taxon  status ranks
T# = Infraspecific Taxon (trinomial) - The status of infraspecific taxa (subspecies or varieties) are indicated by a “T-rank” following the species’ global rank. Rules for assigning T-ranks follow the same principles outlined above.

State Rank (SRank)
State Rank characterizes the relative rarity or endangerment within the state of Washington.
S1 = Critically Imperiled - At very high risk of extirpation in the state due to very restricted range, very few populations or occurrences, very steep declines, severe threats, or other factors.
S2 = Imperiled - At high risk of extirpation in the state due to restricted range, few populations or occurrences, steep declines, severe threats, or other factors.
S3 = Vulnerable - At moderate risk of extirpation in the state due to a fairly restricted range, relatively few populations or occurrences, recent and widespread declines, threats, or other factors.
S4 = Apparently Secure - At a fairly  low risk of extirpation in the  state due to an extensive range and/or many populations or occurrences, but  with  possible cause for some concern as a result of local recent  declines, threats, or other factors.
S5 = Secure - At very low or no risk of extirpation in the state due to a very extensive range, abundant populations or occurrences, with little to no concern from declines or threats.
SH = Possibly Extirpated - Known from only historical records but still some hope of rediscovery.
SX = Presumed Extirpated - Species is believed to be extirpated from the state. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
Rank Qualifiers
S#? = Inexact Numeric Rank - Denotes inexact numeric rank.
S#S# = Range Rank - A numeric range rank (e.g., S2S3 or S1S3) is used to indicate any range of uncertainty about the status of the species.
SU = Unrankable - Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting information about status or trends.
SNR = Unranked - Subnational conservation status not yet assessed
SNA = Not Applicable - A conservation status rank is not applicable because the species or ecosystem is not a suitable target for conservation activities.

Washington Natural Heritage Program - www.dnr.wa.gov/ResearchScience/Topics/NaturalHeritage/Pages/amp_nh.aspx
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Washington Dept. of Natural Resources, PO Box 47014, Olympia, WA 98504-7014