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Updated Taxonomy and Nomenclature References

Updated taxonomy and nomenclaure references for species in Appendix B of Endangered, Threatened & Sensitive Vascular Plants of Washington-with Working Lists of Rare Non-Vascular Species - August 1997.


Abronia umbellata Lam. ssp. acutalata (Standl.) Tillett (Synonymous with A. umbellata Lam. var. acutalata Standl.) 
    Tillett, S.S. 1967. The Maritime species of Abronia (Nyctaginaceae). Brittonia 19: 299-327.
Achnatherum hendersonii (Vasey) Barkworth (Synonymous with Oryzopsis hendersonii Vasey.)
    Barkworth, M. 1993. North American Stipeae (Gramineae): Taxonomic changes and other comments. Phytologia 74(1): 1-25.
Adiantum aleuticum (Ruprecht) Paris (Submerged within A. pedatum L. in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Paris, C.A. 1991. Adiantum viridimontanum, a new maidenhair fern in eastern North America. Rhodora 93(874): 105-122.
Allium columbianum (Ownbey & Mingrone) Peterson, Annable & Reisberg (Synonymous with A. douglasii Hook. var. columbianum Ownbey & Mingrone)
    Peterson, P.M., C.R. Annable, and L.H. Rieseberg. 1988. Systematic Relationships and Nomenclatural Changes in the Allium douglasii Complex (Alliaceae). Systematic Botany 12(2): 207-214.
Allium constrictum (Mingrone & Ownbey) Peterson, Annable & Reisberg (Synonymous with A. douglasii Hook. var. constrictum Mingrone & Ownbey)
    Peterson, P.M., C.R. Annable, and L.H. Rieseberg. 1988. Systematic Relationships and Nomenclatural Changes in the Allium douglasii Complex (Alliaceae). Systematic Botany 12(2): 207-214.
Ammania robusta Heer & Regel (Synonymous with Ammania coccinea Rottb. ssp. robusta (Heer & Regel) Koehne)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum L. (Synonymous with Asplenium viride Hudson)
    Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 389 pp.
Aster borealis (Torr. & Gray) Prov. (Synonymous with Aster junciformis Rydb.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Astragalus arthurii M.E. Jones (Spelling of specific epithet changed from authuri to confirm to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1988))Astragalus australis (L.) Lam. var. olympicus Isely (Synonymous with A. cottonii M.E. Jones)
    Isely, D. 1983. New combinations and two new varieties in Astragalus, Orophaca, and Oxytropis (Leguminosae). Syst. Bot. 8: 420-426.
Astragalus conjunctus Wats. var. novum (A newly described variety to be published soon.)Botrychium ascendens W.H. Wagner (Newly described species)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2): 33-47.
Botrychium campestre Wagner & Farrar (Recently discovered in Washington)
    Wagner, W.H., and F.S. Wagner. 1994. Another widely disjunct, rare, and local North American moonwort (Ophioglossaceae: Botrychium subg. Botrychium). American Fern Journal 84(1): 5-10.Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2): 33-47.
Botrychium crenulatum W.H. Wagner (Newly described species)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. American Fern Journal 71(1):20-30.
Botrychium hesperium (Maxon & Clausen) Wagner & Lellinger (Recently discovered in Washington)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1983. Two moonworts of the Rocky Mountains; Botrychium hesperium and a new species formerly confused with it. American Fern Journal 73(1): 53-62.
Botrychium lineare Wagner (Recently discovered in Washington)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1994. Another widely disjunct, rare, and local North American moonwort (Ophioglossaceae: Botrychium subg. Botrychium). American Fern Journal 84(1): 5-10.
Botrychium minganense Vict. (Included within B. lunaria (L.) Swartz in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973).)
    Wagner, W.H. and L.P. Lord. 1956. The morphological and cytological distinctness of Botrychium minganense and B. lunaria in Michigan. Bull. of Torrey Bot. Club. 83(4): 261-280.
Botrychium montanum W.H. Wagner (Newly described species)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. American Fern Journal 71(1):20-30.
Botrychium paradoxum W.H. Wagner (Newly described species)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. American Fern Journal 71(1):20-30.
Botrychium pedunculosum W.H. Wagner (Newly described species)
    Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. American Fern Journal 76(2): 33-47.
Botrychium pinnatum St. John (Included within B. boreale Milde. in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973).)
    Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 389 pp.
Calochortus macrocarpus Dougl. var. maculosus (Nels. & Macbr.) Nels. & Macbr. (Variety of C. macrocarpus)
    Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest Vol. 1, p. 773.
Camissonia minor (Nelson) Raven (Synonymous with Oenothera minor (Nels.) Munz.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Camissonia pygmaea (Dougl. ex. Lehm.) Raven (Synonymous with Oenothera pygmaea Dougl.)
    Raven, P.H. 1964. The generic subdivision of Onagraceae, tribe Onagreae. Brittonia 16: 276-288.Raven, P.H. 1969. A revision of the genus Camissonia (Onagraceae). Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 375. 394 pp.
Camissonia scapoidea (Nutt. ex. Torr. & Gray) Raven (Synonymous with Oenothera scapoidea Nutt.)
    Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Carex anthoxanthea Presl. (not known from Washington at time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.Taylor, T.M.C. 1983. The sedge Family of British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial Museum. Handbook. 43p.
Carex atrosquama Mackenzie (Synonymous with Carex atrata L. var. atrosquama (Mack.) Cronq.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh. (not known from the Pacific Northwest at the time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Carex eleocharis Bailey (Synonymous with Carex stenophylla Wahl.)
    Mastrogiuseppe, J. 1993. Treatment of the genus Carex in The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. Edited by J. Hickman. University of California Press. Berkeley. 1400 pp.
Carex foenea Willd. (Synonymous with Carex aeanea Fern.)
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Carex heteroneura Boott. (Synonymous with Carex atrata L. var. erecta Boott.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. (Spelling of vaietal epithet changed from hystricina)Carex magellanica Lam. ssp. irrigua (Wahlenb.) Hulten (Synonymous with Carex paupercula Michx.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Carex rostrata Stokes (Name misapplied by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) and others to Carex utriculata Boott.)
    Griffiths, G.C.D. 1989. The three Carex rostrata (Cyperaceae) in Alberta. Alberta Naturalist 19(3): 105- 108.Kovalchik, B.L. and J. Mastrogiuseppe. 1991. First record of the real Carex rostrata in Washington. Douglasia 15(3): 3-4.Reznicek, A.A. 1985. What is Carex rostrata Stokes? [Abstract] Am. J. Bot. 72: 966.
Carex scopulorum Holm. var. prionophylla L.A. Standley (Synonymous with C. prionophylla Holm.)
    Standley, L.A. 1985. Systematics of the Acutae Group of Carex (Cyperaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Systematic Botany Monographs Vol. 7. 106p.
Carex tenuiflora Wahlenb. (Only know from north and east of the PNW at time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Britton, N.L. and H.A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. Vol. I. Reprinted in 1970 by Dover Publications, Inc. New York.
Cassiope lycopodioides (Pall) D. Don (Previously known from the Queen Charlotte Islands and elsewhere in northern British Columbia)
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Cephalanthera austiniae (Gray) Heller (Synonymous with Eburophyton austiniae (Gray) Heller.)
    Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. p. 1212.
Chrysolepis chrysophylla (Dougl.) Hjelmqvist (Synonymous with Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) DC.)
    Hjelmqvist, H. 1948. Studies on the floral morphology and phylogeny of the Amentiferae. Bot. Not. Suppl. 2(1), 171p.Kruckeberg, A.R. 1980. Golden Chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) in Washington State: A species at the Northern Limit of its Range. Northwest Science 54(1): 4-16.
Claytonia lanceolata Pursh. var. pacifica McNeill (Described from the Olympic Mtns. and Vancouver Island)
    McNeill, J. 1972. New taxa of Claytonia section Claytonia (Portulacaceae). Can. J. Bot. 50: 1895-1898.
Collinsia sparsiflora Fisch. & Mey. var. bruceae (Spelling of varietal epithet changed from bruciae to conform to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1988).Coptis aspleniifolia Salisb. (Spelling of specific epithet changed from asplenifolia to conform to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1988).Crassula aquatica (L.) Schonl. (Synonymous with Tillaea aquatica L.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Crassula connata (Ruiz Lopez & Pavon) A. Berger (Synonymous with Tillaea erecta Hook. & Arn.; not known from Washington at the time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Cryptantha spiculifera (Piper) Payson (Identified in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) as a synonym for C. interrupta (Greene) Pays. However, the taxa are now treated as distinct, with C. spiculifera occurring in WA, but not C. interrupta.)
    Cronquist, A. et al. 1984. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 4. New York Botanical garden, New York. p. 227.
Cusickiella douglasii (Gray) Rollins (Synonymous with Draba douglasii Gray var. douglasii)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Cyperus bipartitus Torrey (Synonymous with Cyperus rivularis Kunth.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. (Synonymous with Cypripedium calceolus L. var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fern.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Damasonium californicum Benth. (Synonymous with Machaerocarpus californicus (Benth.) Small.)
    Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. p. 1101.
Diphasiastrum alpinum (L.) Holub (Synonymous with Lycopodium alpinum L.)
    Holub, J. 1975. Diphasiastrum, a new genus in Lycopodiaceae. Preslia 14: 97-100.
Dodecatheon austrofrigidum Chambers in ed. (Newly described from the Olympic Mtns. And Coast Range of Oregon)Draba cana Rydb. (The name Draba lanceolata Royle was apparently misapplied in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) to this taxon)
    Mulligan, G.A. 1971. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba cana, Draba cinerea, and Draba groenlandica in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany 49: 89-93.
Draba lonchocarpa Rydb. var. vestita O.E. Schulz (Not included within Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973). Previously known only to the north of Washington)
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Draba longipes Raup (Not known from the Pacific Northwest at time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973). Previously known from northern British Columbia)
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Dryopteris carthusiana (Villars) H.P. Fuchs (Synonymous with D. spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt., which in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) is included within D. austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar.
    Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 389 pp.
Erigeron salishii G.W. Douglas & J.G. Packer (Newly described from British Columbia and Washington)
    Douglas, G.W. and Packer, J.G. 1988. Erigeron salshii, a new Erigeron (Asteraceae) from British Columbia and Washington. Can. J. Bot. 66: 414-416.
Eriogonum codium Reveal, Beck and Caplow (Newly described species)
    Reveal, J.L., F. Caplow, and K. Beck. 1995. Eriogonum codium (Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae), a new species from southcentral Washington. Rhodora 97(892): 350-356.
Fauria crista-galli (Menzies ex. Hook.) Makino (Synonymous with Nephrophyllidium crista-galli (Menzies) Gilg.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Gentianella tenella (Rottb.) Boerner (Synonymous with Gentiana tenella Rottb.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Hackelia hispida (Gray) Johnst. var. disjuncta Carr (Taxonomic revision since Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Gentry, J.L. and R.L. Carr. 1976. A Revision of the Genus Hackelia (Boraginaceae) in North America, North of Mexico. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 26(1): 121-227.
Hackelia hispida (Gray) Johnst. var. hispida (Taxonomic revision since Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Gentry, J.L. and R.L. Carr. 1976. A Revision of the Genus Hackelia (Boraginaceae) in North America, North of Mexico. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 26(1): 121-227.
Heterotheca oregona (Nutt.) Shin. (Synonymous with Chrysopsis oregona (Nutt.) Gray.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Juncus hemiendytus F.J. Herman var. hemiendytus (Varietal distinction not made in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Ertter, B. 1986. The Juncus triformis Complex. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 39.
Lasthenia maritima (Gray) M. Vasey (Synonymous with Lasthenia minor (DC.) Ornduff var. maritima (Gray) Cronq.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Lesquerella tuplashensis Rollins, Beck & Caplow (Newly described species)
    Rollins, R.C., K.A. Beck, and F.E. Caplow. 1995. An undescribed species of Lesquerella (Cruciferae) from the State of Washington. Rhodora 97 (891): 201-207.
Limosella acaulis Ses. & Moc. (Apparently included within L. aquatica L. in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Wetherwax, M. 1993. Treatment of the genus Limosella in The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. Edited by J. Hickman. University of California Press. Berkeley. 1400 pp.
Lianathus bolanderi (Gray) E. Greene (Synonymous with L. bakeri Mason)
    Patterson, R.W. 1993. Treatment of the genus Linanthus in The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. Edited by J. Hickman. University of California Press. Berkeley. 1400 pp.
Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr. (Synonymous with L. anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell.)
    Cooperrider, T.S. and G.A. McCready. 1975. On Separating Ohio Specimens of Lindernia dubia and L. anagallidea (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 40: 191-197.
Lipocarpha aristulata (Cov.) Tucker (Synonymous with Hemicarpha aristulata (Cov.) Smyth, which in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) is treated as a synonym for H. micrantha (Vahl) Britt.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Lomatium quintuplex Schless. & Const. (Newly described from the Columbia Basin)
    Schlessman, M.A. and L. Constance. 1979. Two new species of tuberous Lomatiums (Umbelliferae). Madrono 26(1): 37-43.
Lupinus cusickii S. Wats. (Synonymous with Lupinus lepidus Dougl. var. cusickii (S. Wats.) Hitchc.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub (Synonymous with Lycopodium inundatum L.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Microseris borealis (Bong.) Schultz-Bip. (Synonymous with Apargidium boreale (Bong.) T. & G.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Minuartia nuttallii (Pax) Briq. ssp. fragilis (Maguire & Holmgren) McNeill (Synonymous with Arenaria nuttallii Pax var. fragilis (Mag. & Holmg.) Hitchc.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Ophioglossum pusillum Raf. (Synonymous with O. vulgatum L. var. pseudopodum (Blake) Farwell)
    Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 389 pp.
Oxytropis borealis D.C. var. viscida (Nutt.) S. Welsh (Synonymous with Oxytropis viscida nutt. in T. & G.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Oxytropis campestris (L.) DC. var. wanapum Joyal (Newly described from the Columbia Basin)
    Joyal, E. 1990. New variety of Oxytropis campestris (Fabaceae) from the Columbia Basin, Washington. Great Basin Naturalist 50(4): 373-377.
Packera cymbalaria (Pursh) Weber & Loeve (Synonymous with Senecio cymbalaria Pursh.)
    See Phytologia 49: 46.
Parnassia palustris L. var. neogaea Fern. (Not known from Pacific Northwest at time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 998 pp.
Pellaea brachyptera (Moore) Baker (Primarily known from SW Oregon and NW California)
    Alverson, E.R. and J.A. Arnett. 1986. Pellaea brachyptera new to Washington. American Fern Journal 76(1):25-26.Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 389 pp.Munz, P.A. and D.D. Keck. 1970. A California Flora. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 1681 pp.
Petrophyton cinerascens (Piper) Rydb. (Spelling of generic epithet changed from Petrophytum to conform to Index Nomen Genoricum.Petrophyton hendersonii (Canby) Rydb.(Spelling of generic epithet changed from Petrophytum to conform to Index Nomen Genoricum.Platanthera chorisiana (Cham.) Reichenb. (Synonymous with Habenaria chorisiana Cham.)
    Luer, C.A. 1972. Native Orchids of Florida. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindl. (Synonymous with Habenaria obtusata (Banks ex Pursh.))
    Luer, C.A. 1972. Native Orchids of Florida. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh) Lind. (Synonymous with Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr.)
    Luer, C.A. 1972. Native Orchids of Florida. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Platanthera sparsiflora (S. Wats.) Schlechter (Synonymous with Habenaria sparsiflora S. Wats.)
    Luer, C.A. 1972. Native Orchids of Florida. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Poa arctica R.Br. ssp. arctica (The name P. grayana Vasey has apparently been misapplied to plants in our region)
    Cronquist, A. et al. 1977. Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6, p. 232.
Poa glauca M.Vahl. spp. rupicola (Nash) W.A. Weber (Synonymous with Poa rupicola Nash.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Poa nervosa (Hook.) Vasey (Synonymous with Poa nervosa (Hook.) Vasey var. nervosa)
    Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. p. 1290.
Poa paucispicula Scribn. & Merr. (Synonymous with P.leptocoma Trin. var. paucispicula (Scribn. & Merr.) C.L. Hitch.)
    Hulten, E. 1973. Supplement to Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Botaniska Notiser 126: 459- 512.
Poa unilateralis Scribn. (P. pachypholis Piper, recognized by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973), has been submerged by most authors into P. unilateralis)
    Soreng, R. 1991. Systematics of the "Epiles" group of Poa (Poaceae). Systematic Botany 16(3): 507-528.
Polystichum lemmonii L. Underwood (Synonymous with P. mohrioides (Bory) C. Presl.)
    Wagner, D. 1979. Systematics of Polystichum in western North America. Pteridologia 1: 1-64.
Ribes oxyacanthoides L. ssp. cognatum (Greene) Sinnott (Synonymous with R. cognatum Greene)
    Sinnott, Q.P. 1985. A revision of Ribes L. Subg. Grossularia (Mill.) Pers Secd. Grossularia (Mill.) Nutt. (Grossulariaceae) in North America. Rhodora 87: 189-286.
Ribes oxyacanthoides L. ssp. irriguum (Dougl.)Sinnot (Synonymous with R. irriguum Dougl.)
    Sinnott, Q.P. 1985. A revision of Ribes L. Subg. Grossularia (Mill.) Pers Secd. Grossularia (Mill.) Nutt. (Grossulariaceae) in North America. Rhodora 87: 189-286.
Rorippa columbiae Suksd. ex Howell (Synonymous with R. calycina (Engelm.) Rydb. var. columbiae (Suksd.) Rollins.)
    Stuckey, R.J. 1972. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Rorippa (Cruciferae) in North America. SIDA 4(4): 279-430.
Salix maccalliana Rowlee (Not included in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Brayshaw, T.C. 1976. Catkin Bearing Plants (Amentiferae) of British Columbia. Occassional papers of the British Columbia Provincial Museum No. 18.
Samolus parviflorus Raf. (Not known from the Pacific Northwest at the time of publication of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Maual: Higher Plants of California. University of California press, Berkeley. 1400 pp.
Saxifraga rivularis L. (Synonymous with Saxifraga debilis Engelm. ex Gray)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Saxifraga tischii Skelly (Newly described from the Olympic Mtns.)
    Skelly, R.J. 1988. A new species of Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) from the Olympic Mountains, Washington, and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Madrono 35(2): 126-131.
Saxifragopsis fragariodes (Green) Small (Previously known only from SW Oregon and northern California).
    Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Maual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1400 pp.
Scirpus atrocinctus Fern. (Synonymous with Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. var. brachypodus (Fern.) Gilly.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Sisyrinchium sarmentosum Suskd. ex Greene (Included with S. angustifolium Mill. in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Henderson, D.M. 1976. A biosystematic study of Pacific Northwestern blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium, Iridaceae). Brittonia 28: 149-176.
Sisyrinchium septentrionale E.P. Bicknell (Included with S. angustifolium Mill. In Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Henderson, D.M. 1976. A biosystematic study of Pacific Northwestern blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium, Iridaceae). Brittonia 28: 149-176.
Spiranthes porrifolia Lindl. (Synonymous with S. romanzoffiana Cham. var. porrifolia (Lindl.) Ames & Corell.
    Luer, C.A. 1975. The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Talinum sediforme von Poellnitz (Synonymous with T. okanoganense English)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Tauschia tenuissima (Geyer ex Hook.) Math. & Const. (Synonymous with Lomatium orogenioides (Coult. & Rose) Math.)
    Mathias, M.E. and L. Constance. 1973. Another look at Leibergia Coult. & Rose (Umbelliferae). Madrono 22: 71-73.
Teucrium canadense L. ssp. viscidum (Piper) Taylor & MacBryde (Synonymous with T. canadense L. var. occidentale (Gray) McClintock & Epling.)
    Taylor, R.L. and B. MacBryde. 1978. New taxa and nomenclatural changes with respect to Vascular Plants of British Columbia:A Descriptive Resource Inventory. Can. J. Bot. 56: 184-195.
Trillium parviflorum Soukup (Newly described taxon that keys to T. chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Soukup, V.G. 1980. A New Trillium (Lilliaceae) from the Northwestern United States. Brittonia 32: 330- 333.
Trimorpha elata (Hook.) Nesom (Synonymous with Erigeron acris L. var. elatus (Hook.) Cronq.)
    Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. (This taxon was not included in Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973))
    Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada.


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